Ruminative Brooding Mediate the Association between Self-Objectification and Psychological Distress among Early Adults


  • Eman Akhtar Bachelors in Clinical Psychology
  • Hira Fatima Lecturer, Gift University Gujranwala
  • Mishal Zoha M.Phil. Scholar, Gift University Gujranwala
  • Noor Fatima Aziz M.Phil. Scholar, Gift University Gujranwala



Self-Objectification, Rumination, Psychological Distress


The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between self-objectification, and psychological distress with rumination as a mediator. The research was designed to get an understanding of the role of rumination on body-objectification and psychological distress in earl adults. For this purpose, Objectified Body Conscious Scale (OBCS) was used to measure self-objectification, Ruminative Response Scale (RRS) was used to measure rumination in males and females and Kesler Psychological Distress Scale was used for the purpose of measuring psychological distress in males and females. The research was conducted on the sample size of 249 young adult’s male and female and SPSS 23 was used for the analysis. The psychometric properties of each of the scale were assessed. The alpha coefficient for each of the scales were computed.  The α-coefficient for all variables were more than 0.7 that is good value. Self-objectification was significantly negative with rumination and also significantly negative with psychological distress. While rumination was significantly positive related with psychological distress. Also, there were a significant gender difference in rumination. Mediation analysis revealed that rumination was fully mediated the relationship between self-objectification and rumination.


Abbasi, A., and A. Zubair. 2015. "Body Image, Self-Compassion, and Psychological Well-Being among University Students." Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 13 (1): 41.

American Psychological Association, & Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. 2007. Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Accessed [date].

Buelens, T., K. Luyckx, A. Gandhi, G. Kiekens, and L. Claes. 2019. "Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescence: Longitudinal Associations with Psychological Distress and Rumination." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 47: 1569-1581.

Bugay, A., and Ö. Erdur-Baker. 2011. "Ruminasyon Düzeyinin Toplumsal Cinsiyet ve Yaşa Göre İncelenmesi." Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi 4 (36): 191-201.

Beck, S., K. Whitaker, and M. Cropley. 2022. "Is Rumination Associated with Psychological Distress After a Cancer Diagnosis? A Systematic Review." Journal of Psychosocial Oncology. doi:10.1080/07347332.2022.2035462.

Brown, S. L., M. Hughes, S. Campbell, and M. G. Cherry. 2020. "Could Worry and Rumination Mediate Relationships Between Self-Compassion and Psychological Distress in Breast Cancer Survivors?" Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. doi:10.1002/cpp.2510.

Chen, S., W. A. van Tilburg, and P. J. Leman. 2022. "Self-Objectification in Women Predicts Approval Motivation in Online Self-Presentation." British Journal of Social Psychology 61 (1): 366-388.

Calogero, R. M. 2017. “Political Consciousness and Gender Collective Action: A Case and Place for Self-Objectification,” in The Political Psychology of Women in U.S. Politics, edited by A. L. Bos and M. C. Schneider, 93–110. New York, NY: Routledge.

Dakanalis, A., A. C. Timko, M. Clerici, G. Riva, and G. Carrà. 2017. "Objectified Body Consciousness (OBC) in Eating Psychopathology: Construct Validity, Reliability, and Measurement Invariance of the 24-Item OBC Scale in Clinical and Nonclinical Adolescent Samples." Assessment 24: 252–274.

Dakanalis, A., G. Carrà, R. Calogero, R. Fida, M. Clerici, M. A. Zanetti, and G. Riva. 2015. "The Developmental Effects of Media-Ideal Internalization and Self-Objectification Processes on Adolescents’ Negative Body-Feelings, Dietary Restraint, and Binge Eating." European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 24: 997–1010.

Eckern, M., W. Stevens, and J. Mitchell. 1999. "The Relationship Between Rumination and Eating Disorders." The International Journal of Eating Disorders 26 (4): 414–419.<414::AID-EAT7>3.0.CO;2-8.

Fredrickson, B. L., and T. A. Roberts. 1997. "Objectification Theory: Toward Understanding Women’s Lived Experiences and Mental Health Risks." Psychology of Women Quarterly 21: 173–206. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x.

Fredrickson, B. L., T. Roberts, S. M. Noll, D. M. Quinn, and J. M. Twenge. 1998. "That Swimsuit Becomes You: Sex Differences in Self-Objectification, Restrained Eating, and Math Performance." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75 (1): 269-84. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.75.1.269.

Grabe, S., J. S. Hyde, and S. M. Lindberg. 2007. "Body Objectification and Depression in Adolescents: The Role of Gender, Shame, and Rumination." Psychology of Women Quarterly 31 (2): 164-175.